VII.2: What Does “Federal” Mean?

The word ‘federal’ refers to the division of governing power between a nation and its sub-regions or states. It is confusing that in America it has become common to use the word “federal government” to refer to the national government alone. It would be far clearer to use the phrase “national government” for that purpose. … Read more

VI.5: The Ninth and Tenth Amendments

The founders presented the U.S. Constitution to the state ratifying conventions in the 1780’s. Many state conventioneers only signed it on the condition that a Bill of Rights would be added. So James Madison added a Bill of Rights. It included the first eight amendments that guarantee specific rights. He also added two general amendments, … Read more